Uniswap Price Prediction 2023-2032

  • Uniswap Price Prediction 2023 – up to $8.44
  • Uniswap Price Prediction 2026 – up to $27.34
  • Uniswap Price Prediction 2029 – up to $86.78
  • Uniswap Price Prediction 2032 – up to $264.71

For anyone considering the switch from centralized finance (CeFi) to decentralized finance (DeFi), here’s a thought: Why do we constantly update the Uniswap Price Prediction? The fight is on for the survival of the fittest crypto project, and we need to keep you informed despite social media maneuvers by certain quarters!

How much is UNI worth today?

The current Uniswap price stands at $4.10, having seen a trading volume of $53,586,142 in the past 24 hours. With a market capitalization of $2,408,974,527 and a market rank of 27, it demonstrates an increase of 2.08% over the last 24 hours.

Uniswap Price Analysis: Uniswap value upgrades to $4.091 after downsweep

TL;DR Breakdown

  • Uniswap price analysis predicts an uptrend.
  • Coin value has increased up to $4.091.
  • Support is available at $3.871 end.

The latest one-day and four-hour Uniswap price analysis for 28 October 2023 gives a bullish indication regarding the current market trends. The cryptocurrency value experienced a bullish recovery during the last 24-hours, which is a huge victory for the buyers. Although the price underwent a great decline during this week, today UNI/USD value elevated up to $4.091 high.

Uniswap price analysis on a daily time frame: Cryptocurrency secures bullish recovery above $4.091

The latest one-day Uniswap price analysis predicts a strong bullish win for the cryptocurrency today. Although last week proved highly unfavorable with respect to cryptocurrency’s growth, today the bulls made a successful comeback. Because of the ongoing rise in upward momentum, the coin value has increased up to $4.091 today. Side by side, its Moving Average (MA) value has stepped up to $4.152 because of the previous hike in price.

The volatility seems to be on the decreasing end, which means that the coin value might find further chances of recovery. Because of the decline in volatility, the upper value of the Bollinger bands indicator has now changed to $4.314. Whereby its lower value has shifted to $3.871 end for now. If we talk about the Relative Strength Index (RSI) indicator, then its graph shows an ascending curve as well. Its overall value heightened up to an index of 46.2 because of the recent turnover.

Price analysis on the 4-hour chart: Upturn carries price beyond $4.091 hurdle

The four-hour Uniswap price analysis shows signs of an upturn as the price underwent considerable recovery in the past four hours. Although the bears took over the market during the earlier hours, currently the bulls seem to be back on track. Because of the intensifying buying pressure, UNI/USD value has recovered up to $4.091 mark. Moreover, its Moving Average value has improved up to $4.084 because of the bullish activity as well.

The four-hour price chart dictates a decreasing volatility, which is a bullish signal regarding the approaching market trends. The upper end of the Bollinger bands indicator now displays a value of $4.297, whereas its lower end shows a value of $3.955. The RSI graph shows a bullish curve as well because of the ongoing upward trend. Because of the hike in price during the past four hours, the RSI value has increased up to 47.

What to expect from Uniswap price analysis next?

The recent one-day and four-hour Uniswap price analysis shows an increasing trend for the day, as the bulls have made a comeback. Although the coin value experienced a massive drop during this week, today the coin value recovered up to $4.091. The four-hour price analysis shows an uptrend as well, which is a great opportunity for the buyers.

Recent News/Opinions on the Uniswap Network

Uniswap CEO Burns 99% of HayCoin Supply, Uniswap founder Hayden Adams recently burned 99% of the HayCoin (HAY) supply due to concerns about price speculation. HAY was initially deployed for testing five years ago, and Adams held the majority of tokens in his wallet. The move permanently removed about $650 billion worth of HAY tokens from circulation, causing a significant price increase. Some users raised concerns about the potential tax implications of this token burning.

The Uniswap Foundation aims to secure $62.37 million in funding for their vision of a self-sovereign Internet and a permissionless financial alternative. The proposal, including a 10% buffer to counter price fluctuations, will undergo an on-chain vote on October 4th. If approved, these funds will support operational activities and research grants, furthering the growth and innovation of the decentralized exchange and aligning incentives for its stakeholders.

Educational platform Uniswap University, introduced in collaboration with blockchain education-focused DoDAO, provides structured courses, simulations, and guides to help users get started with the Uniswap v3 exchange. You can explore various topics, from grasping the fundamentals of decentralized exchanges (DEX) to mastering advanced strategies like liquidity provision, gaining both theoretical knowledge and practical experience. Uniswap v3 has garnered significant attention, outpacing Bitcoin in terms of fee generation and amassing over $3.2 billion in total value locked across its protocols, establishing itself as a key player in the decentralized finance (DeFi) landscape.

Uniswap ruling shapes DeFi regulation: A recent court ruling in a class action lawsuit against Uniswap separates DeFi from centralized exchanges like Coinbase, suggesting that decentralized exchanges may face different regulatory treatment. The judge found that Uniswap’s investors and developers were not liable under federal securities laws for scam tokens, highlighting the permissionless nature of DeFi projects as a key factor. This ruling presents a regulatory divide between platforms like Coinbase and Uniswap and could make it more challenging for the SEC to enforce regulations on truly decentralized exchanges, although the legal landscape for DeFi remains evolving.

Uniswap gains status of the top DeFi exchange. In 2023, Uniswap overtook Coinbase’s trading volume in February and maintained its lead despite volume decrease. Uniswap’s daily volume exceeded $1.4 billion, while Coinbase consistently stayed above $1 billion. By Q1 2023, Uniswap’s $150 billion volume surpassed Coinbase’s $145 billion, making it the top DeFi exchange.

Uniswap owner poses a formal apology for attempting to take down Caversaccios’s v4 fork available on GitHub. Hayden Adams has admitted that this attempt was futile, as fork was just one step away from DMCA action. According to the founder, this step was crucial and beneficial for users to commit without restrictions.

Bots cover up to 90% of Uniswap trading value according to the latest analysis as done by Glassnode. The human traders investing in Uniswap have receded to a minute percentile of 7% and 28%. Almost 90% of UNI/USD trading value is being supported by bots from the preceding support of 80%.

Uniswap Founder Hayden Adams’ Twitter account was hacked in a recent crypto industry trend of scams targeting industry figures. The scam involved a fake message about Uniswap being exploited, with malicious links. Although the first scam tweet was quickly taken down, several similar ones remained visible, and Adams also faced issues with his MetaMask and Coinbase Wallet accounts.

UniswapX leverages the Dutch auction technique for Optimal Pricing and Liquidity. Dutch auctions start with a high asking price, gradually lowering it until a bidder accepts it. UniswapX utilizes this concept to provide users with the best prices through competing fillers. The approach is also used in NFT sales, such as @artblocks_io, where prices decrease until all pieces are sold. Uniswap Labs has also published a white paper and developer documents about the filler side of UniswapX.

Uniswap Labs introduced UniswapX— an innovative decentralized protocol enabling permissionless trading across Automated Market Makers (AMMs) and various liquidity sources, designed with an open-source license (GPL). Expect enhanced liquidity, improved pricing, protection against Miner Extractable Value (MEV), and gas-free swapping for users as the platform evolves.

Uniswap, has successfully launched on the Avalanche C-Chain, expanding the reach of DeFi on the Avalanche blockchain. This move follows the footsteps of other prominent DeFi platforms, including Curve and Aave, solidifying Avalanche’s position in the DeFi space. The expansion was made possible through a governance proposal initiated by Michigan Blockchain, gaining widespread support with a remarkable 95% majority in favor of the deployment.

On June 13, Uniswap Labs announced the release of a draft for Uniswap v4 in a blog post by the founder, Hayden Adams. The updated code introduces a feature known as “hooks,” which are essentially plugins that enable developers to establish custom liquidity pools. The blog post suggests that these “hooks” will pave the way for future developers to implement on-chain limit orders, automatic deposits to lending protocols, auto-compounded liquidity provider (LP) fees, and a host of other advancements to the exchange once it’s in place.

Uniswap Labs introduces hooks, which function as powerful plugins allowing developers to inject code at critical stages in a pool’s lifecycle, such as pre or post swaps. This groundbreaking feature empowers developers to leverage Uniswap’s liquidity and security infrastructure, enabling them to design pools with unique functionalities. By exposing tradeoffs in Uniswap v3, hooks provide developers with the autonomy to make informed decisions and integrate custom features into the core pool contract, fostering further innovation in the ecosystem.

Hayden Adams, the creator of Uniswap, expressed surprise on Twitter about a sophisticated scam involving a fake Uniswap website. The scammers incorporated Chinese community content and provided links to the legitimate Uniswap app, adding credibility. They even organized a Zoom recording with fake high-ranking Uniswap executives, but Adams clarified that Uniswap and the Uniswap Foundation were not involved in the video or associated with the individuals involved.

A team of developers has launched Uniswap’s smart contracts on the Bitcoin network to leverage the surge in BRC-20 tokens and foster the growth of the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem. This protocol, known as Trustless Market, has already achieved daily transaction volumes of $500,000, drawn in over 2,000 users, and allows liquidity providers to earn a 2% commission on all swaps made within the network.

In April, for the fourth month in a row, decentralized exchange Uniswap outperformed Coinbase (COIN), a centralized exchange in terms of trading volume, as reported by CCData. Uniswap first exceeded Coinbase’s trading volume in February.

Ethereum has undergone a series of upgrades toward its next version, Ethereum 2.0. Unfortunately for Uniswap, the upgrades are taking a long time and affect Uniswap in terms of long processing time and high gas fees. However, there are means by which the price impact could be reduced, but before we get into these methods, let’s have a backgrounder on Uniswap and its token UNI. With this Uniswap price prediction, let’s determine if those who invest in the UNI V3 will get 3x profit.

The introduction of the v3 factors could help propel Uniswap cryptocurrency prices skywards, especially considering the available data shows that the update has already helped Uniswap become the largest DEX on the Ethereum network. Lower transaction fees have also made Uniswap more accessible to new users.

Uniswap Price Predictions for 2023-2032

Price Predictions By Cryptopolitan

Uniswap Price Prediction 2023

Based on the forecast and technical analysis, the price of Uniswap is projected to hit a minimum of $7.69 in 2023. The UNI price might achieve a peak of $8.44 with a mean value of around $7.96.

Uniswap Price Prediction 2024

The expected price of Uniswap might touch a bottom of $11.13 in 2024. According to our analysis, the UNI price has the potential to reach up to $13.22, with an average estimated price of $11.45.

UNI Price Forecast for 2025

Uniswap’s price is anticipated to settle at a minimum of $15.58 in 2025. It could potentially hit a peak of $19.64, averaging around $16.16 for the year.

Uniswap (UNI) Price Prediction 2026

The price projection for Uniswap suggests it might bottom out at $23.52 in 2026. Our analysis indicates the UNI price has the potential to climb to $27.34 with an average of $24.17.

Uniswap Price Prediction 2027

In 2027, the Uniswap price might begin at a minimum of $32.81. Over the year, it has the potential to reach a high of $40.08, with an average figure hovering around $33.78.

Uniswap Price Prediction 2028

Our thorough technical analysis indicates that Uniswap could start at a minimum of $49.83 in 2028. The UNI price might see a high of $57.42, with a median price around $51.52.

Uniswap (UNI) Price Prediction 2029

The projection for 2029 suggests that Uniswap might achieve a minimum of $71.35. There’s potential for the UNI price to peak at $86.78, averaging out at about $73.42.

Uniswap Price Forecast 2030

Uniswap’s price in 2030 is expected to hover around a minimum of $104.04. With potential peaks up to $124.07, the average trading price is likely to be around $107.71.

Uniswap (UNI) Price Prediction 2031

Deep analysis of past UNI data forecasts a 2031 starting price of about $152.18. The peak might touch $181.09 with an average trading value of $156.49.

Uniswap Price Prediction 2032

By 2032, Uniswap’s price could potentially start at a minimum price of $217.36. Over the year, it could peak at $264.71, with a mean value of approximately $225.18.

Uniswap Price Prediction By Coincodex

According to Coincodex’s current Uniswap price prediction, the price of Uniswap is predicted to drop by -7.28% and reach $ 3.84 by October 16, 2023. Based on Coincodex’s technical indicators, the current sentiment is Bearish, while the Fear & Greed Index is showing 47 (Neutral). Uniswap recorded 14/30 (47%) green days with 2.28% price volatility over the past 30 days. According to Coincodex’s Uniswap forecast, it is currently not a favourable time to purchase Uniswap.

Considering the historical price movements of Uniswap and the BTC halving cycles, Coincodex estimates the lowest yearly Uniswap price for 2024 to be around $ 3.60. Meanwhile, they predict the price of Uniswap could climb to as high as $ 9.52 the following year.

Uniswap Price Prediction By DigitalCoinPrice

Digital Coin Price’s Uniswap price forecast provides a bullish potential for the token’s future price points. The website anticipates that in 2024, UNI’s price will be projected to surpass the $9.94 threshold. As the year concludes, Uniswap’s valuation is anticipated to hit a minimum of $8.79. Moreover, the UNI price has the potential to reach a peak of $10.25.

Fast forwarding to 2032, UNI’s price is expected to break through the $77.47 mark. By year’s end, Uniswap’s value is predicted to achieve a minimum of $77.2. Furthermore, the UNI price could attain a maximum level of $78.53.

Uniswap Price Predictions By CryptoPredictions.com

According to CryptoPredictions.com’s UNI price prediction, the forecast for Uniswap in November 2023 suggests that it will commence the month at a price of $3.359 and conclude at $3.383. Throughout November, the UNI price is expected to peak at $4.939, while the lowest anticipated price is $3.359.

Uniswap Price Prediction By Market Sentiment

As Bitcoin continues to assert its dominance, the landscape for altcoins undergoes a transformation, exemplified by the challenges faced by Uniswap. The increased regulatory scrutiny imposed by the SEC has cast a shadow on these alternative digital assets, causing investors to retreat cautiously. While the Uniswap network has made notable strides, the UNI token finds itself struggling to maintain its value, hinting at a potential substantial decline in the imminent weeks.

Nevertheless, the bullish camp remains steadfast, propelled by the robust advancements within the network. The prevailing market sentiment remains unsettled, prompting numerous analysts to advise against investing in Uniswap at this juncture. Among them, Alt Sherpa, a renowned crypto analyst, projects a significant correction of approximately 25% for the UNI token during this quarter.

UNI Overview

To clarify the various facets of Uniswap, especially for those new to the platform, it’s important to understand its key components. Uniswap Labs is the company responsible for developing both the Uniswap protocol and its web interface. The protocol itself is a suite of persistent, non-upgradable smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain that together form an automated market maker. This allows for peer-to-peer market making and the swapping of ERC-20 tokens.

To interact with this protocol, users can utilize the Uniswap Interface, a user-friendly web interface designed for this purpose. However, it’s worth noting that this interface is just one of many ways to engage with the Uniswap protocol. Additionally, the platform has a governance system, known as Uniswap Governance, which is enabled by the UNI token and oversees the rules and future development of the Uniswap Protocol.

Uniswap Price History

Although the decentralized exchange (dex) has been around since 2018, it wasn’t until 2020 that the Uniswap cryptocurrency token came into existence. In the first year of its release, it had an initial price of just $3.00. However, because of the ferocious hype surrounding it, Uniswap price change increased to $7.00 by 19 September 2020, according to CoinMarketCap.

After the hype and excitement began to wind down, the price also began to fall, but it did not experience a drastic price change than other tokens, nor was its all-time low after the fact. Its all-time low was at $1.03 on 17 September 2020, before its price increase, according to CoinGecko.

Although, CoinMarketCap states its all-time low to be $0.4190 on that same day. It experienced an all-time high of $8.44 a day after it calmed down and declined. UNI’s price continued to decline as the months rolled by, although it never went below $2 before it again began to increase slowly, thanks to the 2020 bull run.

UNI finished the year 2020 with a price of $5.00. Since then, it has continued to increase, being on the verge of surpassing its former all-time high.

Uniswap operates on a decentralized P2P exchange automated market maker (AMM), away from conventional cryptocurrencies. Before we dig into the Uniswap price prediction, let us look at some of the unique features of Uniswap.

Being linked to Ethereum enabled as two smart contracts, Uniswap has a unique provision of liquidity providers (LPs). This unique feature of Uniswap acts as a significant catalyst in removing the hurdle concerning token mining. In a manner, it promotes transparency by eliminating intermediaries or permission.

Hence, digital assets are linked as pairs instead of individual cryptocurrencies. As a decentralized protocol for automated liquidity provision on Ethereum, Uniswap took the entire crypto space by surprise during the pandemic; Uniswap decided to launch this token UNI on 17 September 2020.

More on the Uniswap Network

Is it a good time to invest in Uniswap?

The new year 2023 has been quite positive for the big cryptos, with Bitcoin trading above $20k for the first time since November 2022. Uniswap has had a similar trajectory and could see more gains in the coming weeks and months. Besides, UniSwap is undoubtedly a credible DEX among crypto investors, and they prefer UNI coins to invest in because of its market performance and good investment returns. This is not investment advice.

Who is the Uniswap Founder?

Uniswap was created on 2 November 2018 by Hayden Adams, a former mechanical engineer at Siemens. He informed his followers through Twitter that it is only a few weeks since the launch of the Uniswap v3, and it is already the highest volume DEX protocol on OxPolygon. He further noted that its price is only $45 million on TVL.

Uniswap (UNI) is one of the most prominent decentralized finance (DeFi) exchanges. The DeFi protocol was founded in 2018 by former mechanical engineer Hayden Adams. The Uniswap exchange functions as a 100% on-chain automated protocol market maker on the Ethereum blockchain. The AMM allows DeFi users to swap ether (ETH) for any ERC-20 token without intermediaries, solving many liquidity problems most exchanges face.

How does Uniswap work?

Uniswap pioneered the Automated Market Maker model, in which users supply Ethereum tokens to Uniswap “liquidity pools,” and algorithms set market prices based on supply and demand (as opposed to order books matching bids and asks from users on a centralized exchange like Coinbase).

By supplying tokens to Uniswap liquidity pools, users can earn rewards while enabling peer-to-peer trading. Users supply tokens to liquidity pools, trade tokens, or even create and list their own tokens (using Ethereum’s ERC-20 token protocol). There are currently hundreds of tokens on Uniswap, and many popular trading pairs are stablecoins like USDC.

Some of the potential advantages of decentralized exchanges like Uniswap include the following:

  • Self-governing: Funds are never transferred to any third party or are generally subject to counterparty risk (i.e., trusting your assets with a custodian) because both parties are trading directly from their own wallets.
  • Global and permissionless: There is no concept of borders or restrictions on who can trade. Anyone with a smartphone and an internet connection can participate.
  • Ease-of-use and pseudonymity: No account signup or personal details are required.

Uniswap Smart Contracts

Uniswap is just a bunch of smart contracts that work together to make a decentralized exchange. Smart contracts are uploaded to the blockchain, and since it’s on the blockchain, the code has the same immutable, decentralized, and borderless capabilities as cryptocurrencies. Smart contracts can transfer money autonomously based on the parameters in the code, allowing for highly efficient financial services.

Investors send their cryptocurrency or coin funds to a Uniswap smart contract to earn interest on their holdings; these investors are referred to as liquidity providers. The smart contracts that hold their cryptocurrency are called liquidity pools.

Liquidity providers are necessary for Uniswap to operate, as it’s how they can provide liquidity to trade on the platform. Instead of ordering books, the smart contract calculates the price of each cryptocurrency market asset. This is how a Uniswap smart contract works.

Why do people trust UNI?

People have become aware that one can not turn a billionaire in the short term or long term when one invests wisely in crypto. Hence they buy tokens based on the coin’s long-term actual performance. This is all the more reason for you to be in UNI for the long term, not the short-term gains.

Why is UNI keeping steady despite the bear market?

The credit goes to the faith investors have reposed in the asset. At the same time, it is an excellent reason that UNI is listed on the exchange to show excellent performance. This triggers investor response and shows a great deal of motivational sentiment—no wonder the token shows a constant up-rise consequently. Our perfectly optimized content goes here!

Uniswap Price Prediction 2021 - 2025 3

Source: Uniswap Pool

Uniswap is just a bunch of smart contracts that work together to make a decentralized exchange. Smart contracts are uploaded to the blockchain, and since it’s on the blockchain, the code has the same immutable, decentralized, and borderless capabilities as cryptocurrencies. Smart contracts can transfer money autonomously based on the parameters in the code, allowing for highly efficient financial services.

Investors send their cryptocurrency or coin funds to a Uniswap smart contract to earn interest on their holdings; these investors are referred to as liquidity providers. The smart contracts that hold their cryptocurrency are called liquidity pools.

Liquidity providers are necessary for Uniswap to operate, as it’s how they can provide liquidity to trade on the platform. Instead of ordering books, the smart contract calculates the price of each cryptocurrency market asset. This is how a Uniswap smart contract works.

How to reduce price impact on UNI

  • Change the Uniswap Exchange Version. Choose among the Uniswap versions, V1 (old version) and V2 new version V3. On the bottom navigation bar, you will select V1 as the version you want to use to transact the swap. You will check that you understand the disclaimer and click on continue with V1 for the transaction.
  • Break down transactions and reduce the number of purchases. The price impact mechanism is problematic for big transactions. This problem can be solved by reducing the number of assets for trade and buying or selling the desired amount of transactions.
  • Changing the price slippage tolerance. Due to excessive price fluctuations and the lengthy process of registering a buy or sell transaction in decentralized exchanges, an increase in price slippage helps to complete the transaction.

Also Read:

  • Uniswap price analysis: UNI/USD rises to $7.07 after a massive bullish run
  • Staking on Uniswap for Passive Income
  • Extreme crypto fear is a good buying opportunity?
  • All Your Uniswap v3 Liquidity Farming Calculations Are Dead Wrong! Here’s Why

Conclusion

Uniswap’s Version 3 (v3) was launched on Boba Network after receiving approval from the Uniswap DAO. The proposal, which received support from ConsenSys and FranklinDAO, was voted on by the DAO community, with a majority voting in favor of the deployment.

Once the deployment is completed, Uniswap will have the chance to expand its user base by incorporating members from the Boba Network ecosystem, thereby significantly increasing the decentralized exchange’s total value locked and transaction volume. As a result, it may soon push the Uniswap token’s price above crucial resistance levels.

The decentralized finance (DeFi) sector has been one of the most impacted by the current bearish trend. Uniswap is one of the tremendous DeFi platforms, and its native token, UNI, has been witnessing massive volatility in tandem with the wider crypto market. However, the price momentum has been brought to a stabilized zone following several integrations and developments to the network, keeping users glued to the platform. Looking at its roadmap, Uniswap may become the most dominating and used DeFi platform in the next few years as the team is ambitious about accomplishing its project’s goal.

The ongoing developments of the Uniswap platform have attracted a wide range of investors and crypto analysts to produce their viewpoints on future price movements. Uniswap provides excellent hope to the crypto community as the platform offers developers advanced tools to build innovative decentralized applications.

Forecasters provide mixed predictions about the UNI token’s future prices as the bullish forecast suggests a value of over $122 by 2030, whereas the bearish prediction lies near the $20 price barrier. A famous crypto analyst, Mr. Legend Crypto, predicts that the UNI token will surpass its previous highs and pave its way for a bullish move up to $105!

Uniswap will begin recovering in 2023 as the crypto market recovers from the crypto winter. It is impossible to tell when Uniswap will hit bottom, but it is undoubtedly undervalued and will be profitable in the coming years. Despite not sustaining its pricing beyond a honeymoon period, the Uniswap protocol has proven useful for early adopters. Analysts, however, are a little more cautious moving forward since the Uniswap protocol’s success is crucial. Consider the reasons for the bullish price:

  • Uniswap has become the largest and most dominating decentralized exchange protocol on the Ethereum network, implementing an open-source infrastructure with an automated liquidity protocol integration. The Uniswap DEX offers users a free listing of their tokens and a quick swap between tokens without registration.
  • Uniswap Exchange is extremely safe, as it operates as a decentralized exchange and liquidity pool and is built on Ethereum, meaning it has the same security as the Ethereum blockchain. Since it is decentralized, there is no central server to hack and gain access to users’ funds.
  • Uniswap is also famous for its commitment to growth. Not too long ago, its community members voted to create a Uniswap Foundation, focusing on improving community governance and distributing grants to several projects in the Uniswap ecosystem. Also, WEB3 advancements will be a significant fuel; however, unfavorable legislation and market crashes might derail the positive performance of Uniswap.

Please be advised that all predictions for UNI cryptocurrency prices are extremely speculative and do not represent sound financial advice. Any significant investment demands thorough investigation and advice from knowledgeable professionals. Always use caution when trading, and never risk more money than you can afford to lose. Doing your own research is highly advised when investing.

By admin

Related Post

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *